Normalized Vector. So that = / where e is the expected value operator. These are conceptually directions from the center of the cube to the texel you want to appear.

The texture coordinates for cubemaps are 3d vector directions. Filtering does not usually take place across cubemap face boundaries. ), which is called the variance and is more commonly denoted as , the square of the standard deviation.

So that = / where e is the expected value operator. Notably, correlation is dimensionless while covariance is in units obtained by multiplying the units of the two variables. The vectors do not have to be normalized.

The texture coordinates for cubemaps are 3d vector directions. ), which is called the variance and is more commonly denoted as , the square of the standard deviation. If y always takes on the same values as x, we have the covariance of a variable with itself (i.e.